The tourist potential of the climatic, landscape, historical & cultural resources of Canada, & New York (USA)
The designations I have chosen are both on the American continent. The statistics used are based on the European traveller. Because of the vast difference in population density of Canada and the U.S.A, I have decide to centre my comparison around the vast metropolis of New York and western Canada (Calgary-lively city lake Louise-scenic resort)
Canada is situated in the north of the American continent: it is one of the most visited countries in the world. This means that the number of incoming visitors is immense. Renowned for its stunningly beautiful countryside, Canada mixes the flavour of Europe with the bustle of trendy New York, The Canadian Rocky Mountains and its parks, is a destination of choice for millions of visitors annually. For over 100 years the community of Calgary have enjoyed living among the most beautiful natural surroundings in North America.
“The continents territory is divided between only Canada and USA its population of over 277 million is heavily concentrated in a pocket between the grate lakes and the east coat.” (Burton 1995)
As we all know New York is situated to the south of Canada and located on the west coast of the United States. New York is a vibrant, sophisticated, diverse and happening 24-hour city with plenty to see and do day or night The north east roughly revises 40 per cent of the USA population, 37.6 per cent of all domestic tourism is focused on the three states around new York, new jersey and Pennsylvania
Known as the “Big Apple”, featuring the world famous buildings such as The Empire State and Chrysler buildings. New York is oozing with culture; you could easily spend a day strolling through one of its many galleries and gardens or choose from 150 museums including the Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the American Museum of Natural History all well known across the globe.
The surrounding areas of New York and down town Calgary in Canada are very similar .The major difference is the terrain, because Calgary is the gateway to the eastern rocky mountains, which rear up in a sheer wall of snow-capped peaks seventy kilometres west of the city.
Only an hour’s drive west along the Trans Canada Highway from the city centre is Banff National Park, the pride of Parks Canada and a showpiece of Canadian wilderness. The Banff town site and resort is renowned for its luxurious accommodation, including the historic Banff Springs Hotel, as well as its bustling nightlife. With almost 30 feet of natural snow a year and lifts running up to 10,000 feet, the ski hills of Sunshine Valley, Mount Norquay and Lake Louise are ranked among the best in the world, 2000- foot mountain and extreme sports.
Most of the sales are for package holidays. But its main attraction is the winter snow; Pinched between the slopes of one of the world’s most rugged mountain ranges and grasslands, Calgary is a city constantly on the move, regularly expanding to attract more tourists.
A target market that this has helped to reach is youth which thrives on the
“Greatest Outdoor Snow and sport,” ( Barid 2000)
(extreme sports) One of the main attractions in the city is the Palliser Hotel’s famous galas. Which people come to see and experience saying in one of the best hotels in the city.
Tourism in New York is aimed towards the city break, New York is a tourist hot spot for America inland around Manhattan there are many historical and cultural attractions. There are well over 300 places of interest in Manhattan alone. For Example: The Statue of Liberty, Times Square, Central Park and many more. It is well known for shopping areas that attract people to spend their money also many honeymooners have a romantic week away in the 5 star hotels. It has become known as a “luxury city”
Architecturally, the empire state building and the statue of liberty are very interesting: there are also many types of museums and galleries that all add to the tourist diversity of the city of New York.
New York is also the basis of many Hollywood film productions. also One of the main reasons for travelling to New York is business in the city. New York is one of the world’s financial hubs and is home to Wall Street, where billions are thrown about on the NYSE (New York Stock Exchange). With all these areas bring in tourism the economy intake is growing.
A major factor that affects the choice of destination for tourists is the stability of the area, politically and economically. New York has a sound infrastructure. E.g transport NYPD ,NYFD the business customer depends on this stability and business people from around the world appreciate the diversity of new York.
Located on the west coast of the United States, New York lies 237 miles north of Washington
DC (The Capital city of the USA). It has three international airports(Newark, La Guardia, and JFK) dotted around the city outskirts servicing what is widely known as ‘the gateway to the USA
Positive and negative impacts:
The media advertises globally both destination New York/ Canada as being within the top ten most desirable destinations in the world. The factors that add towards this are main areas such as transport; there are good transport facilities in both places which makes them easily accessible for visitors.
Through out history different ethnic groups have moulded the character of Major tourist destinations. New York characteristically has a strong Irish back ground. Where as Canada has more of a multicultural flavour, particularly combining English and French.
The prices available to the customers/ visitor is one of the reasons why so many English people visit these country as England taxation levels are high and adds up to you paying half what you would in England.
Price New York:
Flights to New York are expensive at the best of times, due to the high levels of business in the city and as the gateway to America via connecting flights from Europe to other cities in the USA; the international airports are always busy. Eating out in Manhattan is expensive like in all major cities, but with thousands of small eateries and delis located anywhere and everywhere, the cost of eating out can be dramatically reduced.
Travelling with air Canada prices, go up and down through out the year,depending if it is off -peak or peak season.
December and February are the most busy and therefore most expensive times to go skiing and visit Canada. As it is a long haul journey, both scheduled and charter flights are available depending which airline you travel with.
The Internet is the best means of finding cheaper travel arrangements from companies such as American Airlines, United Airlines, Virgin Airlines and British Airways.
Europe inbound tourism over a nine year period:
Over the last 9 years the number of inbound tourists travelling from Europe has increased by at least one third, the main increase was between 1994 to 1995, and the decrease happened in 1998, Canada/ USA are one of the top ten well known visited country’s in the world, European tourist visit this Ares for the different culture and climate.
September the 11th had such a big impacted on the whole of America not only America but ironically Canada as well, parts of the world associate Canada with America when in truth they are two different countries entirely. Both countries businesses where affected, financial and economically.
Tourism experienced the biggest knock back when people where too scared of flying in and out of America and Canada gateways. As people where frightened to go there, this affected their income more than anything on the stock market.
The statistics are hard to find but reports show After September the 11th there is still a significant decrease in the number of visitors coming to the countries. This is picking up; slowly more so now then two years ago, city breaks and over night stays, VFR traffic has picked up as well, are becoming ever more popular.
The main gateways and travel routes Canada /USA
The destination I have chosen is accessible by plane. The main gateways to Canada are Toronto and Vancouver this is where the main incoming traffic, comes in to the country. It is a long haul flight you can get charter and scheduled flights to Canada on Wednesday/Thursday/Sunday/Saturday it takes 10-12 hours to get to Calgary. Transfer time is 2 hours 45 mins to Lake Louise but only 15 mins from the centre of Calgary which is one of the main cities. The Air Lines that run from the U.K to Calgary depart from Heathrow/Gatwick and Manchester the air lines they work with are Air Canada/British Airways/Monarch and My Travel. This makes it easily available for people to fly at any time even if the flights are over sub-subscribed: with so many flights going out each week there is usually enough capacity.
The government provides money towards tourism though a development fund.
Toronto air port is being extend to take more flights and would benefit the tourist trade coming across from New York with new air ports. Value for money is becoming more important, this area is becoming ever more popular.
New York gate ways;
The main gateway for New York is JFK, this is where the main incoming traffic enters, as a long haul – you can get charter and scheduled flights. New York is quite expensive. Many people buy stand-by tickets. There are flights from the UK every day of the week as New York is one of England’s main business customers and has lots of companies. It takes 6 hours to get to New York. Transfer time is 30 mins depending on what airport you are landing in and what part of New York you are staying in. The centre of New York is Manhattan which is a main area for tourists. The air lines that run from the U.K to New York depart from Heathrow/Gatwick and Manchester. The airlines they work with are United Airlines, British Airways/ America airways.
Statistics for Canada and New York transport:
The statistics over the last 9 years on forms of transport by inbound tourism in Europe. Canada in 1992 and 1995 there was a small fall in the visitor statistics but not significantly, it would be correct to suppose that the incidents of 9-11 would affect both Canadian and U.S internal flight systems due to the fear factor and security risk.
The USA has a total of 42.7 million foreign visitors these can be divided into two groups, from overseas and neighbouring countries. New York has14 per cent share of the country foreign visitors expenditure.
The history and culture of New York:
New York has a population of around 8 million people, covering 301 square miles.
“In its 400 year history; it has been colonised by the Dutch first in 1621. It was lost to the English in 1664 and was re-christened New York.” (Lui Fyson 1998)
The name stuck even after the English lost the colony in 1783, at the end of the Revolutionary war.
Throughout the 19th century, New York grew to become a major shipping port; importing and exporting goods across the world, this was a time of great expanse and the city grew to become the world’s second largest city.
The City continued to grow rapidly, but with this scale of expansion, came fires, epidemics and financial panics. During this time, thousands upon thousands of immigrants fled to New York to seek a better life and make their fortunes, some found prosperity, but most crowded into the slums in lower Manhattan. All immigrants were held at Ellis Island in New York harbour when they arrived. Ellis Island (located on the adjacent island to Liberty Island) served as the country’s immigration depot from 1892 until 1954. In that time nearly 17 million people passed through it’s doors and dispersed across the country, many opting to stay in New York. Many immigrants couldn’t speak English and even today in New York, among its 8 million inhabitants, there are over 100 different languages spoken.
Now New York has little pockets of different countries dotted around such as the Irish quarter, Chinatown, little Italy and many more. Each part represents a piece of a multicultural city like New York
New York’s Districts
“Manhattan is the Hub of New York; it is the commercial and financial Centre of the city and contains the majority of New York’s history.” (Ashworth,Tunbridge 1990)
Dotted around Manhattan (as shown on the map), are the four other districts of New York. They are (from left to right) Staten Island, The Bronx, Queens and Brooklyn. (The Sections in yellow are not part of New York City)
There is a great diversity of culture in New York due to the fact that 100 years ago, millions of immigrants from many different countries emigrated to New York and their cultural traditions still remain in the family today. This can be seen by visiting the areas that have been occupied by these ethnic groups for over 100 years.
History of Canada
Canada and the United States have many major geographic features in common. They share the Rocky Mountains, the Interior Plains, four of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian Highlands, and many rivers. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the stories of the exploration and settlement of both of these nations are closely interwoven. The native red Indian population of the continent was nomadic and left few permanent features to mark their development, although central America ancient urban civilisation have left many historic sites.
The complete history of neither Canada nor the United States can be studied without reference to the history of the other. Each is today an independent nation. Each, however, achieved its independence by a completely different path–Canada by gradual constitutional change spread over many years, the United States by a single Great War of Independence.
Cultural of Canada:
Culture is another main reason that this country is visited by so many people, also they have a very extensive Jewish community, which has been there over 100 years and has become part of there history. Canada also has two separate languages French and English, so many people who live there can speak fluently in both. Also one of the notes worthy continued parts of history that has stayed on through out the years in Canada is The Mountains.
Known as a hotbed for young entrepreneurs, the city has embraced the technological age, while still clinging to the pioneer roots forged by the ranchers, railroad workers and oilmen who laid Calgary’s foundations.
Why tourist choose the destination.
Bullet points on the trends
People now are having more disposable income to spend on long haul holidays
Also with new laws allowing people at work to have a certain amount of holiday time due allowing them to have more time for leisure i.e. holidays.
More people are having more then one holiday a year which adds to the statistics for that particular year.
Long hull distension are becoming much more popular over the year with quicker and easier ways in which to get there, technological expansion
Also people like travelling to destination where they can speak the same language, so there is no language barrier in the way.
Good value for money so the average person annular wage can afford it.
One of the main reasons people travels to the USA and Canada is visiting friends and relatives.
This part of the world is renowned for sport. Sport is an insentive for why people travle. New york is famous for the new york yankees stdiiem, the giants/nicks and other interesting sprting entertainments.
Canada on the other hand is know for its Olympic sports facilities, held the 1986 Winter Olympics and is still used for many sport competitions. These rural areas also provide opportunities for hiking, camping, canoeing, hang gliding and other outdoor sports It’s not only the competitors but also the supporters that travel, so it receives many tourists though out the year.
The growth of the country adds to the counties economic growth rate going up, with tourist having a richer way of living, they get there value for money when visiting the country with the exchange rat at1.5$ to the
As the economy is rising the existing facilities are becoming improved with up dated technological factors. With being taken into account the Economic stability has created a good cost of living with more people moving to the surrounding area and working in the main towns. With the development of growth in any tourist destination, there will always be negative impacts on the environment, such as over crowding, more crime and pollution. Political stability may come into government governs the country will affect tourism e.g. war.
One of the main requirements for all tourist attractions is the customer’s wants and needs. These include accommodation transport, entertainment and facilities.
“New York provides sophistication starting architecture and luxury” (Hoffman, Fainstein 2003)
Canada is renowned for its natural beauty winter sports and culture. Both of these
Destinations have all the factors necessary to provide tourists with an enjoyable, stimulating yet relaxed experience. Canada is another huge country and has a similar geographical pattern of physical regions and a similar distribution of population as the USA, but it has a very much smaller population of only 26.5 million in 1990 vast areas of Canada are sparsely populated and there are extensive tracts of untouched wilderness with outstanding scenic attraction their summer season is relatively short temperatures reach over 16oc.
Canada pattern of domestic tourist movement is broadly similar to that of the USA Canada outbound tourism to the USA is also strongly concentrated in the far east and west, particularly in the states just across the USA boarder e.g. new York